American Revolution or American War of Independence : 1775-83
AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE (1775-83)
1. The American Revolution is the name given to the struggle by which 13 colonies of England in North America declared their independence from England and fought a war to make it a reality.
2. By the middle of the 18th century, differences in thought and interests had developed between the colonies one the one hand and the mother country (England) on the other.
3. Attempts to collect new taxes such as the Stamps Act (1765) and Tax on tea (1767) angered the colonists who maintained that the British government was imposing 'taxation without representation' and that only the colonial representative assemblies could rightfully tax the Americans.
4. Boston Tea Party (1773) : The tax on tea led to trouble. In 1773, several colonies refused to unload the tea coming in English ships. In Boston, when the governor ordered a ship to be unloaded, a group of citizens dressed as American Indians boarded the ship and dumped the crates of tea into the water. This incident is known as the 'Boston Tea Party'.
5. The American Revolution started in 1775 and lasted until 1781.
6. On July 4,1776, the Declaration of Independence was issued. Its author was Thomas Jefferson. The Declaration stated that all men are created equal; that they have a natural and inalienable right to life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness; and that they are justified in revolting when these rights are violated by any government.
7. The colonies won the war against England. The American Revolution made possible the establishment of a new nation, the United States of America (U.S.A.).
8. In 1783 England acknowledged American independence in the treaty of Paris and George Washington was elected the first President of the USA.