Harappan/Indus Civilization (2500 BC-1750 BC) World HIstory
1. The oldest name - Indus Civilization.
2. According to archaeological tradition, the most appropriate name -Harappan Civilization (Harappa - the first discovered site).
3. According to geographical point of view, the most suitable name Inuds -Saraswati Civilization (the largest concentration of settlement - along the Indus - Saraswati river valley; 80% settlement along the Saraswati).
4. The most accepted period - 2500 BC - 1750 BC (by Carbon-14 dating).
5. John Marshall was the first scholar to use the term 'Indus Civilization'.
6. The Indus Civilization belongs to Proto-Historic Period (Chalcolithic Age / Bronze Age).
7. The Indus Civilization was spread over Sindh, Baluchistan, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western U.P. and Northern Maharashtra.
8. Scholars generally believe that the Harappa-Ghaggar-Mohenjodaro axis represents the heartland of the Indus Civilization.
9. The Northern-most site of Indus Civilization - Ropar (Sutlej)/Punjab (Earlier); Manda (Chenab)/Jammu-Kashmir (Now).
The Southern-most site of Indus Civilization Bhagatrav (Kim) / Gujarat (Earlier); Daimabad (Pravara)/Maharashtra (Now).
The Eastern-most site of Indus Civilization - Alamgirpur(Hindon) / Uttar Pradesh.
The Western-most site of Indus Civilization - Sutkagendor (Dashk)/ Makran Coast, Pakistan—Iran Border.
10. Capital Cities - Harappa, Mohenjodaro
Port Cities - Lothal, Sutkagendor, Allahdino, Balakot, Kuntasi
Country Excavators---->Pakistan Daya Ram Sahni(1921), Madho Swaroop Vatsa (1926),Wheeler (1946)
Site--------->Mohenjodaro (Nakhlistan i.e. Oasis of Sindh)
Country Excavators---->Pakistan Rakhal Das Bannerji (1922), Mackay (1927) Wheeler (1930)
Country Excavators---->Pakistan Mackay (1925), N.G. Mazumdar (1931)
Country Excavators---->India S.R. Rao (1954)
Site------------------>Kalibanga (i.e. the bangles of black colour)
Country Excavators---->India Amalanand Ghosh - (1951 ),B.V. Lai and B.K. Thapar (1961)
Country Excavators---->India R. S. Bist (1973)
Country Excavators---->India J.P. Joshi (1967-68)
Archaeological Finds--->6 Granaries in row, Working floors, Workmen's quarters, Virgin-Goddess (seal), Cemetery (R-37, H), Stone symbols of Lingam (male sex organ) and Yoni (female sex organ), Painted pottery, Clay figures of Mother Goddess, Wheat and Barley in wooden mortar, Copper scale, Crucible for bronze, Copper-made mirror, Vanity box, Dice.
Archaeological Finds---> Great Granary, Great Bath (the largest building of civilization), Assembly hall, Shell strips, Pashupati Mahadeva/Proto-Shiva (seal), Bronze Image of a nude woman dancer, Steatite image of bearded man, Human skeltons huddled together, Painted seal (Demi-God), Clay figures of Mother Goddess, A fragment of woven cotton, Brick Kilns, 2 Mesopotamian seals, 1398 seals (56% of total seals of civilization), Dice.
Archaeological Finds---> City without a citadel, Inkpot, Lipstick; Metal-workers', shell - ornament makers' and bead - makers' shops; Imprint of dog's paw on a brick, Terracotta model of a bullock cart, Bronze toy cart.
Archaeological Finds---> Dockyard, Rice husk; Metal-workers', shell ormament makers' and bead - makers' shopes; Fire altars, Terracotta figurine of a horse, Double burial (burying a male and a female in a single grave), Terracotta model of a ship, Dying vat, Persian/Iranian seal, Baharainean seal, Painted jar (bird-and fox).
rchaeological Finds---> Ploughed field surface (Pre-Harappan), 7 Fire altars, Decorated bricks. Wheels of a toy cart, Mesopotamian cylindrical seal.
Archaeological Finds---> Lack of chess-board or gridiron pattern town planning, Lack of systematic drainage system, Toy plough, Clay figures of Mother Goddess.
Archaeological Finds---> A unique water harnessing system and its storm water drainage system, a large well and a bath (giant water reservoirs), Only site to be divided into 3 parts, Largest Harappan inscription used for civic purposes, A stadium.
Archaeological Finds---> Bones of horse, Oval grave. Pot burials.
Archaeological Finds---> Bronze images (Charioteer with chariot, ox, elephant and rhinoceros)
11. Mohenjodaro - the largest site of Indus Civilization, Rakhigarhi - The largest Indian site of Indus Civilization.
12. Common Features of Major Cities : 1. Systematic town-planning on the lines of 'grid system' 2. Use of burnt bricks in constructions 3. Underground drainage system (giant water reservoirs in Dholavira) 4. Fortified citadel (exception-Chanhudaro).
13. Surkotada (Kutchh district, Gujarat) : the only Indus site where the remains of a horse have actually been found.
14. The most commonly found figurine is that of Mother - Goddess (Matridevi or Shakti). There is evidence of prevalence of Yoni (female sex organ) worship.
15. The chief male deity was the 'Pasupati Mahadeva' i.e. the lord of Animals (Proto-Shiva) represented in seals as sitting in yogic posture; he is surrounded by four animals (elephant, tiger, rhino and buffalo) and two deer appear at his feet. There was the prevalence of Phallic (lingam) worship.
16. Thus Shiva - Shakti worship, the oldest form of worship in India, appears to have been part of the religious belief of Harppan people (esp. humped bull).
17. The remains and relics also reveal that zoolatry i.e. animal worship and tree worship (esp. peepal) were in vogue in those days.
18. There is evidence of pictographic script, found mainly on seals. The script has not been deciphered so far, but overlap of letters on some of the potsherds from Kalibanga show that writing was boustrophedon or from right to left and from left to right in alternate lines. It has been referred to as Proto - Dravidian.
19. Steatite was mainly used in the manufacture of seals.
20. Humpless bull is represented in most of the Indus seals.
21. Inhumation or complete burial was the most common method of disposal of the dead.
22. The origin of the 'Swastika' symbol can be traced to the Indus Civilization.
23. 'Indra is accused of causing the decline of Indus Civilisation'— M. Wheeler.
25. The Rigveda speaks of a battle at a place named 'Hariyumpi a' which has been identified with Harappa.
26. The majority of scholars believe that the makers of this civilization were Dravidian.
27. Contemporary civilizations of Indus Civilization—Mesopotamia, Egypt and China.