Mughal Period (1526-40 and 1555-1857) Ancient History
1. The foundation of the Mughal rule in India was laid by Babur in 1526.
2. He was a descendant of Timur (from the side of his father) and Chengiz Khan (from the side of his mother).
3. Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat on Apfril 21, 1526 and established Mughal dynasty which lasted till the establishment of British rule in India.
4. In 1527, he defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar at Khanwa.
5. In 1528, he defeated Medini Rai of Chaneri at Chanderi.
6. In 1529, he efeated Muhammad Lodhi (uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi) at Ghaghra.
7. In 1530, he died at Agra. His tomb is at Kabul.
8. He adopted Tughluma and flanking party system and first to use gunpowder and artillery in India.
9. He wrote his autobiography Tuzuk-i-Baburi in Turki in which he gives an excellent account of India and his empire. Tuzuk-i-Baburi was translated in Persian (named Baburnama) by Abdur Rahim Khanekhana and in English by Madam Bebridge.
10. He compiled two anthologies of poems, Diwan (in Turki) and Mubaiyan (in Persian). He also wrote Risal-i-Usaz or letters of Babur.
Humayun: 1530-40 and 1555-56
1. He was the son of Babur and ascended the throne in 1530. His succession was challenged by his brothers Kamran, Hindal and Askari alongwith the Afghans.
2. He fought two battles against Sher Shah at Chausa (1539) and at Kannauj / Bilgram (1540) and was completely defeated by him.
3. He escaped to Iran where he passed 12 years of his life in exile.
4. After Sher Shah’s death Humayun invaded India in 1555 and defeated his brothers the Afghans. He once again became the ruler of India.
5. He died while climbing down the stairs of his library (at Din Panah) in 1556 and was burried in Delhi.
6. His sister, Gulbadan Begum, wrote his biography Humayunama.
7. He built Din Panah at Delhi as his second capital.
Sur Empire (Second Afghan Empire): 1540-55
Sher Shah: 1540-45
1. He was the son of Hasan Khan, the Jagirdar of Sasaram. Ibrahim Lodhi transferred his father's jagir to him.
2. In 1527-28, he joined Babur's service and then returned to South Bihar as deputy governor and guardian of the minor king Jalal Khan Lohani, son of Bahar Khan Lohani.
3. Sher Shah usurps throne as Hazarat-i-Ala. He gained Chunar by marrying Lad Malika, the widow of governor of Chunar Fort.
4. In 1539, he defeated Humayun in the battle of Chausa and assumed the title Sher Shah as emperor.
5. In 1540, he defeated Humayunin the battle of Kannauj / Bilgram and annexed Kannauj.
6. As an emperor, he conquested Malwa (1542), Ranthambhor (1542), Raisin (1543), Rajputana-annexation of Marwar (1542), Chittor (1544) and Kalinjar (1545). He died in 1545 while conquesting Kalinjar.
7. During his brief reign of 5 years he introduced a brilliant administration, land revenue policy and several other measures to improve the economic conditions of his subjects.
8. He issued the coin called Rupia and fixed standard weights and measures all over the empire.
9. He also improved communications by building several highways. He built the Grand Trunk Road (G.T. Road), that runs from Calcutta to Peshawar.
10. He set up a cantonment in various parts of his empire and strong garrison was posted in each cantonment.
1. Adminstrative Unit--> Iqta (i.e. Province)
2. Head-----> Haqim and Amin
1. Adminstrative Unit--> Sarkar (i.e. District)
2. Head-----> Shiqdar-i-Shiaqdaran and Munsif-i-Munsifan
1. Adminstrative Unit--> Pargana (i.e. Taluka)
2. Head-----> Shiqdar and Munsif
1. Adminstrative Unit--> Gram (i.e. Village)
2. Head-----> Muqaddam and Amil
11. He introduced the principle of local responsibility for local crimes. Muqaddams were punished for failure to find culprits.
12. Land was measured and 1/3rd of the average was fixed as land tax. The peasant was given a patta (title deed) and a qabuliyat (deed of agreement) which fixed the peasant's rights and taxes. Zamindar were removed and the taxes were directly collected.
13. He built Purana Quila at Delhi.
14. He was buried in Sasaram.
15. Sher Shah was succeded by Islam Shah (1545-54); Islam Shah by Muhammad Adil Shah (1554-55).
1. Akbar, the eldest son of Humayun, ascended the throne under the title of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar Badshah Ghazi at the young age of 14 at Kalanaur, Punjab and his tutor Bairam Khan was appointed as the regent.
2. Second Battle of Panipat (5 Nov., 1556) was fought between Hemu (the Hindu General of Muhammad Adil Shah) and Bairam Khan (the regent of Akbar). Hemu was defeated, captured and slain by Bairam Khan.
3. This war ended the Mughal-Afghan contest for the throne of Delhi in favour of the Mughals and enabled Akbar to reoccupy Delhi and Agra.
4. Akbar ended the regency of Bairam Khan in 1560 and at the age of 18 assumed the reigns of the kingdom.
5. Akbar was under the influence of Maham Anga and Adham Khan junta from 1560 to 1562. [Petticoat Govt.: 1560-62]
6. In his bid to expand his empire he conquered various provincial states.
7. The Rajputa kingdom of Mewar put up a fierce defence under Rana Uday Singh (1537-72) and his son Rana Pratap (1572-97).
8. Akbar tried to win over the Rajputas wherever possible and inducted Rajputa kings into Mughal service and treated them at par with Mughal nobility. By marrying Harakha Bai, daughter of Bharmal/Biharimal (Kutchhwaha Rajputa Ruler of Amer, Capital-Jaipur) in 1562. Akbar displayed his secular policy with the Hindus. Most of the Rajputa Kings recognised the supremacy of Akbar except Rana Pratap Singh and his son Amar Singh (Sisodiya Rajputas of Mewar, Capital-Chittor).
9. The Battle of Haldighati (1576) was fought between Rana Pratap of Mewar and Mughal army led by Man Singh of Amer. Rana Pratap was defeated but he did not submit and continued the struggle.
11. As a revolt against the orthodoxy and bigotry of religious priests, Akbar proclaimed a new religion, Din-i-Ilahi, in 1581. The new religion was based on a synthesis of values taken from several religions like Hinduism, Islam, Jainism and Christianity. It did not recognize the prophet, Birbal was the only Hindu who followed this new religion. Din-i-Ilahi, however, did not become popular.
12. Akbar built Fatehpur Sikri, Agra Fort, Lahore Fort and Allahabad Fort and Humayun's Tomb at Delhi. Fatehpur Sikri, place near Agra-it is said that Akbar had no son for a long time. Sheikh Salim Chisti, a Sufi saint blessed Akbar with a son who was named Salim / Sheikho Baba (Jahangir). In honour of Salim Chisti, Akbar shifted his court from Agra to Fatehpur Sikri.
13. He was patron of the art and in his court many persons flourished.
14. Navaratna i.e. nine jewels of Akbar : 1. Birbal (administrator) 2.Abul Fazl (scholar and statesman) 3.Faizi (scholar and statesman, brother of Abul Fazl) 4. Todarmal (Finance Minister, Dahsala Bandobast/Jabti) 5. Bhagwandas (Mansabdar, son of Bharmal) 6. Man Singh (Mansabdar, Grandson of Bharmal) 7. Tansen (Musician) 8. Abdur Rahim Khanekhana (Statesman, Hindi poet) 9. Mulla Do Pyaja.
15. Tulsidas ('Ramcharitamanas') also lived during Akbar's period.
16. When Akbar died, he was buried at Sikandara near Agra.
17. Akbar is considered 'the real founder of the Mughal empire' in India.
18. He was the first Mughal ruler who divorced religion from politics.
19. Birbal was killed in the battle with Yusufzai Tribe (1586).
20. Abul Fazl was murdered by Bir Singh Bundela (1601).
21. Akbar gave Mughal India one official language (Persian).
1. Salim, son of Akbar, came to the throne after Akbar's death in 1605. He issued 12 ordinances.
2. He is known for his strict administration of justice. He established Zanjir-i-Adal (i.e. Chain of Justice) at Agra Fort for the seekers of royal justice.
3. In 1611, Jahangir married Mihar-un-nisa, widow of Sher Afghan, a Persian nobleman of Bengal. Later on she was given the title Nurjahan. Nurjahan excercised tremendous influence over the state affairs. She was made the official Padshah Begum.
4. Jahangir issued coins jointly in Nurjahan's name and his own.
5. Jahangir also married Manmati/Jagat Gosai/Jodha Bai of Marwar, and a Kachhwaha princess.
6. In 1608, Captain William Hawkins, a representative of East India Company came to Jahangir's court. He was given the mansab of 400. In 1615 Sir Thomas Roe, an ambassador of King James I of England also came to his court. Though initially Jahangir resisted, later on he granted permission to the English to establish a trading port at Surat.
7. A political triumph during Jahangir reign was the submission of Rana Amar Singh of Mewar (1615). Jahangir captured the strong fort of Kangara (1620). Apart of Ahmadnagar was also annexed. Malik Amber ceded back to the Mughal the territory of Balaghat (Maharashtra).
8. His reign was marked by several revolts. His son Khusrau, who received patronage of 5th Sikh Guru Arjun Dev, revolted against Jahangir (1605). Arjun Dev, was later sentenced to death for his blessing to the rebel prince (1606). During his last period, Khurram (Shanjahan), son of Jahangir, and Mahavat Khan, military general of Jahangir also revolted (Khurram : 1622-25 and Mahavat Khan : 1626-27).
9. He wrote his memoirs Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri in Persian.
10. He was buried in Lahore.
Shahjahan : 1628-58
1. Mother’s name-Jagat Gosai/Jodha Bai (daughter of Raja Jagat Singh).
2. Shahjahan ascended the throne in 1628 after his father's death.
3. He was best known for his Deccan and foreign policies.
4. The first thing that he had to face was revolts in Bundelkhand (Jujhar Singh Bundela of Orchha : 1628-35) and the Deccan (Khan-i-Jahan Lodhi, the governor of Deccan : 1629-31)
5. Three years after his accession, his beloved wife Mumtaj Mahal (original name-Arzumand Bano) died in 1631. To perpetuate her memory he built the Taj Mahal at Agra in 1632-53.
6. In 1631-32, he defeated the Portuguese.
7. In addition to Jahangir's empire, Nizam Shahi's dynasty of Ahmadnagar was brought under Mughal control (1633) by Shahjahan. The Deccan Sultanate of Bijapur and Golconda accepted his sovereignty in 1636.
8. He sent his army to Balkh in order to secure the defence of North-Western In