Post-Independence Population Movement

1. In a reversal of the migration patterns experienced during the modern colonial era, postindependence era migration followed a route back towards the imperial country.

2. In some cases, this was a movement of settlers of European origin returning to the land of their birth, or to an ancestral birthplace. 900,000 French colonists (known as the Pied-Noirs) resettled in France following Algeria’s independence in 1962.

3. After WWII 300,000 Dutchmen from the Dutch East Indies, of which the majority were people of Eurasian descent called Indo-Europeans, repatriated to the Netherlands.

4. A significant number later migrated to the US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

5. Global travel and migration in general developed at an increasingly brisk pace
throughout the era of European colonial expansion. Citizens of the former colonies of European countries may have a privileged status in some respects with regard to immigration rights when settling in the former European imperial nation.

6. For example, rights to dual citizenship may be generous, or larger immigrant quotas may be extended to former colonies.

7. In some cases, the former European imperial nations continue to foster close political and economic ties with former colonies.

8. The Commonwealth of Nations is an organization that promotes cooperation between and among Britain and its former colonies, the Commonwealth members.

9. A similar organization exists for former colonies of France, the Francophonie; the
The community of Portuguese Language Countries plays a similar role for former
Portuguese colonies and the Dutch Language Union is the equivalent for former colonies of the Netherlands.

10. Migration from former colonies has proven to be problematic for European countries, where the majority population may express hostility to ethnic minorities who have emigrated from former colonies.

11. Cultural and religious conflicts have often erupted in France in recent decades, between immigrants from the Maghreb countries of North Africa and the majority population of France.

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