The Advent of the Europeans World History

Note: Danish companies were forced to sell all their settlements in India to the British in 1845.


1. The Cape route was discovered from Europe to India by Vasco da Gama. He reached the port of Calicut on May 17,1498 and was received by the Hindu ruler of Calicut (Known by the title of Zamorin).

2. This led to the establishment of trading stations at Calicut, Cochin and Cannanore.

3. Cochin was the early capital of the Portuguese in India. Later Goa replaced it.

4. Francisco de Almeida was the first governor of the Portuguese. Almeida (1505-09) introduced 'the policy of Bluewater'.

5. Alfonso de Albuquerque was the second governor of the Portuguese. Albuquerque (1509-15) introduced 'the policy of Imperialism'. He captured Goa from the ruler of Bijapur in 1510.

6. Nino da Cunha (1529-38) transferred his capital from Cochin to Goa (1530) and acquired Diu and Bassein (1534) from Bahadur Shah of Gujarat.

7. Martin Alfonso de Souza (1542-45) : The famous Jesuit Saint Fransisco Xavier arrived in India with him.

8. The Portuguese power witnessed a decline by the end of the 16th century.

9. They lost Hugli in 1631 after being driven out by Qasim khan, a Mughal noble of Shahjahan.

10. In 1661 the King of Portugal gave Bombay to Charles II of England as dowry when he married the former's sister.

11. The Marathas captured Salsette and Bassein in 1739.

12. In the end they were left only with Goa, Diu and Daman which they retained till 1961.


1. Formation of the company in March, 1602, by a charter of Dutch parliyament the Dutch East India Company was formed with powers to make wars, conclude treaties, acquire territories and build fortresses.

2. The Dutch set up factories at Masulipattam (1605), Pulicat (1610), Surat (1616), Bimilipatam (1641), Karaikal (1645), Chinsura (1653), Kasimbazar, Baranagore, Patna, Balasore, Negapatam (all in 1658) and Cochin (1663).

3. The Dutch replaced the Portuguese as the most dominant power in European trade with the East, including India.

4. Pulicat was the main center in India till 1690, after which Negapatam replaced it.

5. The Dutch conceded to the English after their defeat in the battle of Bedera in 1759.


1. Before the English East India Company established trade in India, John Mildenhall, a merchant adventurer, was the first English man who arrived in India in 1599 by the overland route, ostensibly for the purpose of trade with Indian merchants.

2. The treaty of Pondicherry / Treaty by Godehu (new French governor in place of Dupleix) : 1754-ended the Second Anglo-French War.

3. Third Anglo-French war (1758-63): French Count de Lally captured Fort St. David. French were defeated at Wandiwash (1760). It was a decisive defeat of the French.

4. The treaty of Paris (1763) ended the Third and Final Anglo-French war in India. Pondicherry was returned to the French by this treaty.

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