Important Science & Tech Weekly : 31st to 5th February 2021

Take a look at the list of Science and Technology events that have taken place in the past week. These events are covered on the basis of the questions asked in various competitive government job examinations.

What is Blood Cancer?

Recently World Cancer Day was observed on February 4th, 2021. So let us know what blood cancer actually is? Blood cancer is the type of cancer that affects the red and white blood cells of any human body.

This kind of disease affects the production and the function of RBCs, WBCs, and Plasma cells and begins in the bone marrow which is the producer of RBCs.

Blood cancer can be divided into three types

  • Leukemia- affecting the RBCs
  • Lymphoma- affecting the WBCs 
  • Myeloma- affecting the Plasma
  • Blood Cancer - Symptoms

These are loss of appetite, nausea, regular fever, night sweats, chills. decreased urination, unexpected weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, confusion and delirium among many others. 

Blood Cancer - Treatment

There are three possible treatments 

Chemotherapy: The drugs are given to the patient through a set regimen and injectable methods. The anticancer drugs destroy the cancer cells in the body
Radiation therapy: High-intensity radiations or rays are used to kill cancer cells in the human body
Stem Cell Transplantation: In this treatment, healthy stem cells are induced in the patient’s body to help resume healthy blood production. Stem cells are collected from the umbilical cord or bone marrow.

What is Jarosite?

Recently a unique mineral found on the Martian surface has been found in Antarctica too called the Jarosite. It belongs to the family of iron-hydroxy sulphate minerals and generally occurs in acidic, sulfate-rich environments. 

  • This is found in mining and ore processing wastes too.

  • The chemical formula is KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6. 

  • Jarosite group minerals also include ammoniojarosite, argentojarosite, natrojarosite, and plumbojarosite. 

  • It has been basically found on Earth as a by-product of the refining of zinc.

How can Jarosite be produced?

In laboratories, Jarosite can be produced by combining sulphuric acid with groundwater. In case the ratio changes the material obtained is called goethite. The space scientists are ere perplexed to find jarosite on Mars as it lacked the basic facilities and requirements to obtain it. 

Mission Dragonfly:

  • The launch of Mission Dragonfly by NASA would be in 2026 and would reach on the Titan in 2034.

  • It is a first multi-rotor vehicle to be sent to another planets moon by NASA

  • Details of the Rotorvehicle Dragonfly

  • It has eight rotors and looks like a large-sized drone 

  • It would utilize the data sent by Cassini from its last trip to Saturn for taking entry in the atmosphere of Titan 

  • The vehicle would fly carrying its complete science payload to new places for repeatable and targeted access to surface materials

  • The rotorcraft would look for prebiotic chemical processes that are common to both Earth and Titan. 

  • It would explore the moon of Saturn in short flights using the leapfrog method. 

About Stardust 1.0

  • This is a rocket that functions on biofuel completely, manufactured by a Maine-based aerospace company called blueshift.

  • The rocket Stardust is 20 feet long with a mass of around 250 kg 

  • It can carry a maximum payload of 8 kg and carried three such payloads during its first flight. 

  • These rockets would help to launch small satellites known as CubeSats into space.

  •  The launches would be much cheaper than a traditional rocket and are less toxic for the environment at the same time.

What is Biofuel?

It is a non-toxic fuel that is carbon neutral and can be obtained from biomass to be directly converted into liquid fuels. It can be used as a transportation fuel in place of fossil fuels. 

Science and Tech Weekly Brief: Important topics in Short

Topic - Explanation

Nitinol - It is a shape memory material that can be used in medical devices like stents. It is used to protect rocket payloads from vibrations.

Polar Orbit - It is the one in which any satellite passes above or nearly above both poles of the body being orbited.

Titan - It is one of the moons of Saturn and it bears maximum resemblance to the Earth.

Green Hydrogen - When electrical current is used to separate the hydrogen from the oxygen in the water, it results in the production of Green Hydrogen.

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